This platform is to upload the internship report.
Course conducted by Dr. Vinu Valsala, IITM
Managed: Dr. Aditi Deshpande, DASS, SPPU
Introduction: Chemical composition of the ocean, Distribution of chemicals in the ocean, expression of chemicals as ‘tracers’, conservation of tracers in the ocean
Biology of the ocean: Organic Matter Production, Nutrients, composition of organic matter, Phytoplankton, Zoo plankton and bacteria, Ecosystem processes and role of Light, Ecosystem models, N-P, N-P-Z and N-P-Z-D models
Organic Matter export: export production, regenerated production, new production, e-ratio, f-ratio and remineralization.
Carbon Cycle: Basic carbon dissolution chemistry in the sea water, solubility pump, biological pump, alkalinity of ocean and ocean acidification, air-sea gas exchange and oceanic pCO2Calcium Carbonate cycle and global climate: Glacial-Interglacial atmospheric CO2 exchanges, role of calcium carbonate, carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle, regulation of atmospheric CO2 and role of oceans
1. Sarmiento, J. L. and N. Gruber, (2007): OceanBiogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press, pp-503.
2. Kump, L. R., J. F. Casting and R. Crane, (2010): The Earth System, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, pp-420.
The 4-credit Laboratory Course III is being offered to the M. Sc students in their 3rd Semester. It is intended to familiarize the students with numerical computational methods and interpretation of results related to Atmospheric Sciences in general, and more specifically related to the Dynamic Meteorology and Numerical Weather Prediction. Out of the eleven problems given in the course syllabus, a minimum of seven has to be carried out to complete the course.
Completing the problem involves writing the code, generating the output, plotting the results and writing the interpretation. Each problem has to be completed and submitted within the given time frame.
A good knowledge in Fortran programming (or any other suitable programming languages/ tools) is a prerequisite for the course.
I] Overview of Climate Variability and the Science of Climate Dynamics: The chemical and physical climate system, Basics of radiative forcing, blackbody Radiation, solar energy input, globally averaged energy budget, Greenhouse gases, aerosols and other climate forcings, forcing by sulfate aerosols, commonly used scenarios. Emission paths & their impacts. The greenhouse effect: example with a completely IR-absorbing atmosphere, the greenhouse effect in a one-layer atmosphere. Historical background of climate change. External forcing (Milankovitch and solar forcing) v/s internal forcing (Natural variability)
II] Climate Models: Components and phenomena in the climate system (Time and space scales Interactions among scales), first glance gradients of radiative forcing and energy transports by atmosphere, ocean, carbon cycle, climate forcings and feedbacks Constructing a Climate Model, An Atmospheric model, treatment of sub-grid scale processes, an ocean model and ocean-atmosphere coupling, land surface, snow, ice and vegetation, summary of principal climate model equations, Climate system modeling, hierarchy of climate models, Climate simulations and climate drift, evaluation of climate model simulations for present day climate.
III] Climate Feedbacks: Global energy balance, A global-average energy balance model with a one-layer atmosphere, infrared emissions from a layer, global average model, temperatures from the one-layer energy balance model, increases in the basic greenhouse effect climate feedback parameter in the one-layer global average model, climate feedbacks, climate response time in transient climate change.
IV] Climate Model Scenarios for Global Warming: Climate response time in transient climate change, transient climate change versus equilibrium response experiments, a doubled-CO2 equilibrium response experiment, role of the oceans in slowing warming, climate sensitivity in transient climate change (Ice, sea level, extreme events)
1. Climate Change and Climate Modeling by J. D. Neelin (Cambridge University Press, 2010)
2. Climate Modelling Primer Henderson Sellers and McGuffie
3. Climate System Modelling by Trenberth K.E
4. IPCC Assessment Reports
Basics of Numerical weather prediction models, introduction to WRF model, different schemes
Basic of atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric aerosols, ozone chemistry, air pollution, atmospheric chemical transport models, emission inventiries.