EL-GE02 : Properties of Electronic Materials [4 Credits]
Electrical properties: of metals: Conductivity, reflection and absorption, Fermi surfaces,
superconductivity, thermoelectric phenomena. Conduction in metals oxides, amorphous
Dielectric Properties of materials: Macroscopic electric field, local electric field at anatom,
dielectric constant and polarizability, ferroelectricity, antiferroelectricity, phase transition,
piezoelectricity, ferroelasticity, electrostriction.
Optical properties of materials: Optical constants and their physical significance, Kramers –
Kronig Relations, Electronic internbond and intra bond transitions Relations between Optical
properties and band structure – colour of material (Frenkel Excitons), Bond Structure
determination from optical spectra reflection, refraction, diffraction, scattering, dispersion,
Magnetic Properties of Materials: Dimagnetism, paramagnetism, various contributions to par
and dia magnetism, Adia- batic demagnetization, Paramagnetic susceptibility. Ferromagnetism,
ferrimagnetism, ferrites, antiferromagnetism, curic point, temperature dependence of saturation
magnetization, saturation magnetization at absolute zero, magnons and their thermal excitation,
dispersion relation, Neutron Magnetic scattering, Ferrimagnetic and antiferrimagnetic order,
domains and domain walls, magnetic resonance. Coercive force, hysterisis, methods for
Polymers: Structure of polymers, polymerization mechanism, characterization techniques,
optical electrical, thermal and dielectric properties of polymers.
Defects in crystals and their effects on mechanical, electrical and optical properties. Diffusion in
Recommended Books :
1. Electronic Properties of materials, R.E. HummelSpringer New York publication
2. Solid State Physics, Dekkar,Mcgraw Higher Ed publication
3. Introduction to Solid State Physics, C.Kittle,Wiley publication
4. Solid State Physics, Ashcroft, Mermin,Cengage LearningPublication
5. Principles of Electronic materials &dev, S.O. Kasap,Mcgraw Higher Ed Publication
6. Elementary Solid state physics,M.Ali Omar; Pearson Publication
EL-DE 01 : Image processing : [4 credits]
Image acquisition, Image representations, Image digitalization, Sampling, Quantization, Histograms, Image Quality, Noise in Images
Basic operations on images, Image Enhancement, Pixel intensity transformations, Histogram equalization and matching, noise removal, Edge sharpening, Spatial Filtering, Image smoothing, Morphological operations: erosion, dilation.
Image processing applications, Machine Vision, Blob analysis, Metrology, Feature extraction, Pattern Matching, Biometrics etc.
1. Implement and study point processing operations for Image analysis
2. Implement Spatial processing operations for image smoothening and edge enhancement
3. Morphological operations: erosion, dilation for image analysis
4. Implementing system for measuring dimensions of given object
5. Use template matching for counting number of coins/ image registration
6. Develop a PCB inspection system
♦ Lamps and illumination systems, LEDs – working principle and applications, LED lighting, Display devices, indicators, numeric, alphanumeric and special function displays, Liquid Crystal Display elements, Plasma Displays, Multimedia projectors.Semiconductor lasers, - Fabry-Perot lasers, Distributed Feedback, (DFB) lasers, Distributed Bragg Reflection (DBR) lasersPhotodetectors types and applications, PN and PIN Photodiodes, Avalanche Photodiodes (APD).
♦ Optocouplers, Opto interrupters, LASCR. used in safety interlocks, power isolators, rotary and linear encoders and remote control. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Fiber optic sensors.Optical Fiber Theory, Parameters of Optical Fibers, Types of Optical Fibers-Single Mode and Multi Mode Fibers, Step Index & Graded Index Fibers. Modal Properties-Waveguide Parameter ( V Number ), Cut-off wavelength, Dispersion-Intermodal and Intramodal dispersion.
♦ Loss Mechanism in Optical Fibers-Adsorption and Scattering, Fresnel Reflection, Micro bending & Macro bending, Connector types and Splices, Misalignment and Mismatch losses.Fiber-Optic transmitters and receivers , Direct Modulators, External Modulators-Electro-Optic Modulators, Electro-Absorption Modulators, Noise in detection process, Noise Equivalent Power (NEP).
♦ Single Channel System Design, Power budgeting, Transmission Capacity Budgeting, Dispersion Compensation, Nonlinear effects in optical fibers-Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS), Self-Phase Modulation (SPM), Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM), Four-Wave Mixing (FWM).